They occur because of a transmural injury to the eyeball caused by a blunt object. The eyeball is filled with fluid that is not compressed, so its trauma causes a temporary increase in intraocular pressure. It can rupture: 1) at the site of trauma 2) at the site where the sclera is weakest, usually around the limbus of the cornea, below the attachments of the motor muscles of the eye, around the optic nerve 3) at the site of a wound, p. ex. after surgery (for cataracts, etc.).
Treatment: most of the time it requires urgent surgery and to correct the injured anatomical structures.