It is the protrusion of the eyeball and can cause changes in the appearance of the face and eyes that resemble exophthalmos but are not. It occurs in hyperthyroidism without infiltrative eye disease, Cushing's disease, and severe obesity.
Treatment: lubrication with artificial tears, to protect the cornea in severe cases, surgery is sometimes necessary to provide better coverage of the ocular surface or reduce the exophthalmos. Systemic corticosteroids are helpful in controlling orbital edema and congestion due to thyroid eye disease or inflammatory orbital pseudotumor. Tumors can be surgically removed, and selective embolization can be effective in cases of arteriovenous fistulas that affect the cavernous sinus.