They are anomalies that cause an increase in the internal pressure of the eye, damaging the optic nerve and that usually occurs in the first months and before the age of three. It can be present from birth and the late or juvenile form manifests itself from the age of 3 to adolescence and is the least frequent form. Aqueous humor drainage is impaired as a result of abnormal development of the anterior chamber angle and may or may not be associated with other major ocular abnormalities, and even other systemic abnormalities, occurring in approximately 1 in 10,000 newborns.
Treatment: all cases are with surgery, although sometimes the prior use of drugs is necessary to reduce or control intraocular pressure. It is for this reason that the earlier the disease is diagnosed, and the sooner treatment is carried out, the better the chances of recovery. The diagnosis occurs at the time of birth, the treatment must be immediate since it is the one with the worst prognosis. The choice of surgical technique will depend on the opacity or transparency of the cornea and it is always performed in only one eye, although both are affected, the other will be intervened later. a) Goniotomy: this technique can only be used if the cornea maintains its transparency, the angle of the embryonic tissue that causes the obstruction will be released, with a small incision a peripheral area of the cornea to access the anterior chamber and thus be able to release the trabecular network, through which aqueous humor is eliminated. b) Trabeculectomy: performed whenever the cornea has lost its transparency, it consists of opening a new drainage pathway accessing the angle through the sclera.